Senin, 24 Januari 2011

What is Syngas ?

The technologies for transforming biomass into energy, fuels, chemicals or other value-added products come in one of two varieties. One is founded on the natural biological processes carried out by microbes, or they're dependent on the calibrations of heat, pressure and/or oxygen that define various thermochemical reactions generally referred to as gasification. At the moment, the former is the glitzy star at the center of the renewable fuels stage, while the latter-the understudy to these microbial wonders-is gaining a reputation for robust consistency and efficiency.  <read further of this paragraph> 


Syngas is the abbreviation for Synthesis gas. This is a gas mixture that comprises of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The syngas is produced due to the gasification of a carbon containing fuel to a gaseous product that has some heating value. Some of the examples of syngas are as follows  gasification of coal, waste to energy gasification, steam reforming of natural gas to generate hydrogen. <read further of this paragraph> 


Syngas is the direct end-product of the gasification process. Though it can be used as a standalone fuel, the energy density of Syngas is only about 50 percent that of natural gas and is therefore mostly suited for use in producing transportation fuels and other chemical products. As its unabbreviated name implies, Synthesis gas is mainly used as an intermediary building block for the final production (synthesis) of various fuels such as synthetic natural gas, methanol and synthetic petroleum fuel (dimethyl ether – synthesized gasoline and diesel fuel). In a purified state, the hydrogen component of Syngas can also be used to directly power hydrogen fuel cells for electricity generation and fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) propulsion. <read further of this paragraph> 


Syngas is a gas which is much cleaner than those produced through burning fossil fuels such as coal and gas. In an age when emissions reduction is an important policy of many governments, and when many countries are legally obliged to reduce their carbon dioxide emissions, syngas technology has enormous potential. Syngas can be manufactured domestically, reducing dependence on foreign countries for fossil fuels. 


In addition, this would generate jobs and growth in local economies. A further advantage of this technology is that syngas can be generated as part of the waste to energy process, which means that waste that would otherwise end up in the landfill gets dealt with cleanly and efficiently. <read further of this paragraph>


Syngas clean-up and conditioning is a key technical barrier to the commercialization of biomass gasification technologies and has the greatest impact on the cost of clean syngas. Currently, tar reforming catalysts have not demonstrated that they can clean and condition raw syngas to meet the strict quality standards for downstream fuel or chemical synthesis catalysts.  <read further of this paragraph>


Syngas is utilized in the production of oxo alcohols, methanol or synthetic fuel (Fischer-Tropsch products). <read further of this paragraph>


Tabel of Chemical Composition of Biomass Syngas, Coal Syngas, and Natural Gas. <read further of this paragraph>

Other references:
SynGas
Gasification


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